عنوان البريد الإلكتروني هذا محمي من روبوتات السبام. يجب عليك تفعيل الجافاسكربت لرؤيته.

الشكر الكثير للأخ دكتور حسن حميدة ( ألمانيا) على هذا المقال ( الخامس عشر من يوليو على سودانايل) الذي يلفت فيه نظر الإخوة تجمع المهنيين بالسودان للخطأ اللغوي الفاضح بالإنجليزية لكتابتهم بروفيشنال بff. أوافق إنه خطأ لا يغتفر ولا يليق بهم ويجب تصحيحه على الفور. ولكي نستمر إخوة وأصدقاء وزملاء متعاونين ونتقبل النقد والنصح أشارك الأخ حسن الصدق فى التنبيه وأضيف لطفاً " لكل حصان كبوة ولكل عظيم هفوة". ونحن السودانيين عموماً لدينا أخطاء لغوية كثيرة نمارسها فى حياتنا لا نشعر بها لكن نلاحظها نحن الذين عشنا خارج السودان مثلاً مشكلة الغين والقاف والزين والذاي نطقاً وكتابة وإهمال تنقيط التاء المربوطة وإغفال الهمزة أما فى لغة جون فحدث ولا حرج وأكثر ما يؤلمني أن أشاهد مسؤلاً مستشاراً مرموقاً أو محاضراً يتحدث عبر تليفزيونات عالمية مشهورة ولا يفرق بين people إن هي P أم B

ذهبت إلي ويكيبيديا على قوقل باحثاً لطرح معنى بروفيشنال ( مهني) كما يظهر أدناه لتذكير البعض من عامة القراء . فالمهنية صفة لنعت أي شخص يكسب قوت حياته من تقديم عمل هو مهنة حصل علي تدريب لها هو معتبر ومعروف ينتهي بالحصول على شهادة تثبت ذلك وتجيزه لممارستها، ثم من بعد ذلك بالطبع تأتى مع الممارسة ومرور الزمن إضافة إتقان الخبرة المستدامة وتجويدها. المهنية لها ضوابط ومعايير تنظم أي تعليم أو تدريب يؤهل الشخص للحصول على رخصة ممارسة تلك المهنة كما أن كل المهن تكون مربوطة بقوانين عدلية وأخلاقية ومدنية ولا ننسي النقابية فى زمننا هذا لضمان سلامة وجودة تطبيق تلك المهن code of conduct
مثلاً فى بخصوص مهنة الطب لدينا عند الممارسة بعد التخرج والإجازة إتباع قوانين صارمة وبروتوكولات تصدر وتراجع سنوياً من المجلس الطبي البريطاني ( وكل بلاد العالم لها مجالسها الطبية) إضافة إلى بروتوكولات وتوجيهات الجمعيات الطبية والكليات الملكية البريطانية وبروتوكولات كل مستشفي بحد ذاته وكل ذلك لكي يتوج النجاح المحصلة النهائية ومن غير أخطاء أو أضرار أو استغلال مادي أو غير أخلاقي جراء أداء تلك المهنة الشريفة التي ترتبط بصحة وسلامة كل فرد من المجتمع مهما كان نوعه أو عمره أو لونه أو دخله فلا فرق . أيضاً على كل طبيب أن يبرز سنوياً شهادات إثبات مواكبة الجديد فى مجال تخصصه دارساً ومدرساً وممارساً مهنياً جيداً تثبت كلها خلوه من مشاكل إدارية أو أخطاء عملية غير محمودة

أقترح هنا مراجعة كل ما يكتب قبل اعتماده للنشر مثل الشعارات ولافتات المؤسسات والمحلات التجارية والسياحية والحكومية وما يعرض على شاشات التلفزة كما على كل الخلاوي والمدارس والجامعات ووزارة التربية والتعليم ووسائل الإعلام شن حرب على تفشي أخطائنا اللغوية عربية أو إنجليزية والعمل على علاجها منذ تعليم الأطفال المواليد نطق الحروف والكلمات ومن بعد فى المدارس وقديماً قيل لنا: (التعليم فى الصغر كالنقش على الحجر)

 

 

Professional ( from Wikipedia)
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For other uses, see Professional (disambiguation).

Doctor explains x-ray to patient
A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the particular knowledge and skills necessary to perform their specific role within that profession. In addition, most professionals are subject to strict codes of conduct, enshrining rigorous ethical and moral obligations.[1] Professional standards of practice and ethics for a particular field are typically agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, such as the IEEE.[2] Some definitions of "professional" limit this term to those professions that serve some important aspect of public interest [3] and the general good of society.[4][5]

In some cultures, the term is used as shorthand to describe a particular social stratum of well-educated workers who enjoy considerable work autonomy and who are commonly engaged in creative and intellectually challenging work.[6][7][8][9]

Contents
Trades
Edit

In narrow usage, not all expertise is considered a profession. Although sometimes incorrectly referred to as professions, occupations such as skilled construction and maintenance work are more generally thought of as trades or crafts. The completion of an apprenticeship is generally associated with skilled labour, or trades such as
carpenter, electrician, mason, painter, plumber and other similar occupations. A related distinction would be that a professional does mainly mental work, as opposed to engaging in physical work.[10]

Theory
Edit

Although professional training appears to be ideologically neutral, it may be biased towards those with higher class backgrounds and a formal education. In his 2000 book, Disciplined Minds: A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-Battering System that Shapes Their Lives, Jeff Schmidt observes that qualified professionals are less creative and diverse in their opinions and habits than non-professionals, which he attributes to the subtle indoctrination and filtering which accompanies the process of professional training. His evidence is both qualitative and quantitative, including professional examinations, industry statistics and personal accounts of trainees and professionals.[11]

A key theoretical dispute arises from the observation that established professions (e.g. lawyers, medical doctors, architects, civil engineers) are subject to strict codes of conduct. Some have thus argued that these codes of conduct, agreed upon and maintained through widely recognized professional associations, are a key element of what constitutes any profession.[12] Others have argued that strict codes of conduct and the professional associations that maintain them are merely a consequence of 'successful' professionalization, rather than an intrinsic element of the definition of professional(ism); this implies that a profession arises from the alignment between a shared purpose (connected to a 'greater good'), a body of knowledge, actual behavior in terms of actions and decisions, and expectations held by societal stakeholders.[13]

Etymology
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The etymology and historical meaning of the term professional is from Middle English, from profes, adjective, having professed one's vows, from Anglo-French, from Late Latin professus, from Latin, past participle of profitēri to profess, confess, from pro- before + fatēri to acknowledge; in other senses, from Latin professus, past participle. Thus, as people became more and more specialized in their trade, they began to 'profess' their skill to others, and 'vow' to perform their trade to the highest known standard. With a reputation to uphold, trusted workers of a society who have a specific trade are considered professionals. Ironically, the usage of the word 'profess' declined from the late 1800s to the 1950s, just as the term 'professional' was gaining popularity from 1900–2010.[14][15] Notably, in American English the rise in popularity of the term 'professional' started at the beginning of the 20th century [16] whereas in British English it started in the 1930s and grew fastest in the 1960s and 70s[17].

See also
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Centre for the Study of Professions
Organizational culture
Professional boundaries
Professional sports
Semi-professional
Amateur
References
Edit

Wikimedia Commons has media related to People by occupation.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Professional
^ Postema, Gerald J. (1980). "Moral responsibility in professional ethics" (PDF). N.Y.U. L. Rev. 55. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
^ "IEEE.org Index Page". IEEE.ORG. IEEE.ORG. Archived from the original on 2015-05-15. Retrieved March 26, 2016.
^ Harvey, L.; Mason, S.; Ward, R. (1995). Role of Professional Bodies in Higher Education Quality Monitoring. Birmingham: Quality in Higher Education Project. ISBN 1-85920-108-3.
^ Sullivan, William M. (2nd ed. 2005). Work and Integrity: The Crisis and Promise of Professionalism in America. Jossey Bass.
^ Gardner, Howard and Shulman, Lee S., The Professions in America Today: Crucial but Fragile. Daedalus, Summer 2005. (pgs. 13–14)
^ Gilbert, D. (1998). The American class structure: In an age of growing inequality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Press.
^ Beeghley, L. (2004). The structure of social stratification in the United States. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
^ Eichar, D. (1989). Occupation and Class Consciousness in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-26111-4
^ Ehrenreich, B. (1989). Fear of falling: The inner life of the middle class. New York: Harper Perennial.
^ Merriam-Webster www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/professional
^ Schmidt, J. (2000). Disciplined Minds – A Critical Look at Salaried Professionals and the Soul-Battering System that Shapes their Lives. Rowman & Littlefield, pp.293.
^ Barker, R. (2010), The big idea: No, management is not a profession. Harvard Business Review: https://hbr.org/2010/07/the-big-idea-no-management-is-not-a-profession.
^ Romme, G. (2016). The Quest for Professionalism: The Case of Management and Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://global.oup.com/academic/product/the-quest-for-professionalism-97n80198737735[permanent dead link]
^ "Simple Definition of profess". merriam-webster.com. Merriam Webster. 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
^ "Google Books NGram Viewer". books.google.com/ngrams. Google. 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
^ "Google Books NGram Viewer (American English)". books.google.com/ngrams. Google. 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
^ "Google Books NGram Viewer (British English)". books.google.com/ngrams. Google. 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018.